Automation users should cultivate a balance between trusting the automation enough without trusting the automation so much that they stop paying attention to the situation. How can such a balance be achieved in operations? Automation that is reliable, accurate and designed with the support of the users should be able to gain user trust.
User overreliance (too much trust) in an automation system may lead to a reduction in effective monitoring and a diminished ability to manually intervene when needed. In cases where the user has become overly reliant on automation, overall system safety can be adversely impacted as the human safety barrier has become less effective. Conversely, low user trust in an automation system may lead to disuse of the system and thereby the loss the automation’s intended benefits. The user workload may also be increased from manually completing the tasks that automation was designed to complete.
A user ‘trust balance’ can be achieved through a holistic approach to system design, operational procedures and training. High rates of false alarms and nuisance alarms can further reduce user trust in a system. When users feel like an automation system is intuitive and that it reliably helps them accomplish their operational goals, they will be more likely to trust the system. Including users early in the requirements development process is likely to boost user trust in the system because they may place more trust in the automation designers and the goals of the system.
|The story of iFACTS – An Example of Ground-Breaking Automation Implementation at NATS||NATS|
|Common Automated Radar Terminal System (CARTS) Datablock Drop and Ghosting Issues||FAA|
|Implementation of Electronic Flight Progress Strip (EFPS) System||NATS|
|Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST)||FAA|
|Traffic Management Advisor (TMA)||FAA|
|Austro Control’s Journey to TopSky from a Human Factors Perspective||Austro Control|
Trust in Automation: Designing for Appropriate Reliance – John D. Lee and Katrina A. See
Human Factors Design Guide Update: Automation Guidelines – Vicki Ahlstrom, Kelly Longo, & Todd Truitt
https://www.hf.faa.gov/hfportalnew/Search/DOCs/Human Factors Design Guide Update (CT9601) A Revision to Chapter 5 Automation Guidelines.pdf
NextGen Automation Requirements Categories – T.J Sharkey, L.L. Loomis, & P.A. Lakinsmith
https://www.hf.faa.gov/hfportalnew/Search/DOCs/Recommended Categories for NextGen Human Automation Requirements_RevG.pdf